Current Issue 2/2021

In the new issue Verba Theologica (2/2021) can you find these studies:

Breaking the limits. The current changes of papacy in historical context

This study deals with several phenomena of the pontificate of Pope Francis in its historical context. It reflects some major recent works on the topic and discusses the shift in the priorities of current papacy towards global Catholicism and the systematic interest in the social, economic, and geographical margins of contemporary world. It examines the limits of the pontificate seen in vigorous
opposition within the church and the post-resignation papacy of Benedict XVI. It also deals with the pope’s relation to the Second Vatican Council and his approach to resolving intra-church crises and tensions, as well as his efforts to restore the credibility and authority of the Catholic Church.

Pope Leo the Great and the Primacy
Miloš LICHNER – Stanislav OREČNÝ

This study analyzes selected theological aspects of the perception of the role and position of Roman bishop in the works of early Christian Pope St. Leo the Great. We hereby continue in the exploration of post-Augustinian heritage with special attention to the homiletic work of the Church fathers. We intend to analyze the sermons of Leo in chronological order, considering his arguments to be the capstone of early Christian (ancient Christian) ecclesiology.

The Resurrection of Jesus in Contemporary German Theology

The paper assesses the approach to the resurrection of Jesus in the work of four important German authors. It is no exaggeration to say that they represent influential competing approaches to the subject of Easter. We begin with the famous Easter theses of Hansjürgen Verweyen and follow with a probe into the thought of Hans Kessler, currently the most important representative of the resurrection-in-death model. Kessler opposes Verweyen‘s theses and presents his own approach to the Easter issue, including anthropological and eschatological implications and consequences. Verweyen’s critic Kessler himself is then exposed to the critical pressure of Joseph Ratzinger, who is a prominent critic of the Auferstehung im Tode model. This study also considers the always polemical, provocative, and original Klaus Berger. The aim here is to compare the approaches of these authors.

Judith - the prototype of a brave widow

This article focuses on the progress of the widow‘s position in ancient Israel – from a weak, defenseless woman to a strong, brave heroine. Being a widow in patriarchal societies like ancient Israel was not easy. Widows, along with orphans and foreigners, were a social class on the edge of society in need of strong economical and legal protection. This article will focus on Judith, the main character in an OT book of the same name. First, we shall outline the position of women and widows in ancient Israel in general. Second, we shall take a closer look at the position of widows in the Book of Psalms as the largest corpus in the OT. And third, we will examine the figure of Judith as a prototype of courageous widow. According to some scholars, a possibility exists that the rehabilitation of widows and their acceptance by society was the chief motif for the composition of this book.

Communio-Mystagogy-Religious Diversity. Fundamental theological concretions on school pastoral care

Systematic theology, in its task of reconstructive appropriation of faith, often depends on practical reflection. Systematic theology, beyond its purely selfreferential language and thought games, should also engage in practical mediation problems and not farm them out to practical theology. If for this mediation it is theologically valid that the content of faith cannot be detached from the free acceptance of freely given love and cannot be presented abstractly as deducible truth of reason, then the specific addressees have a constitutive role for the arrival of revelation. This understanding of faith and revelation must be based on reflecting practical theology (such as pastoral care in schools) as a practical science of perception in view of anthropological research and on illuminating the claimed a priori openness of human beings to an ultimate word. For the hearer of the word (Karl Rahner) is not a tabula rasa. Rather, he always already knows something and has always already had experiences. Fundamental theology has a double perspective: it is concerned with the subsequent assurance of faith for those who believe, but also, and especially in the secular space (the school), with making faith possible for those who do not believe and are searching. Here the reference to practice is a primary and receiving as well as stimulating access with that basis of experience, to which also fundamental theology must reflectively refer, if it does not want to lose its character as a science of experience. These constants give food for thought when practical theology (pastoral care in schools)
offers a reflective sign-of-the-time experience in the context of fundamental theological responsibility for faith as ancilla hermeneuticae and in the focused view of communion, mystagogy, creation spirituality, religious diversity and art of living.

Unintentional attack on woman and its legal consequences according to Tanakh and Rabbinic literature: Historical and Sociological Perspectives
Marie ROUBALOVÁ – Roman KRALIK – Miroslav TVRDOŇ – Hedviga TKÁČOVÁ – Patrik MATURKANIČ – Ľubomír HLAD

Torat Moshe protects some of the weakest members of society - mothers and unborn children. It points out that death caused by the perpetrator is never an isolated issue. The death of one human being means the death of other potential human beings. The aim of the provision at hand, despite the wrongdoing committed by the perpetrator, was not (according to most rabbinic interpreters) to punish him (by killing or injuring), but only to compensate for the damage. The intention is to settle the imbalance in interpersonal relationships. Torat Moshe tries to prevent fights between men (brothers) by pointing out how terrible things can happen to them. The ambiguity of the Hebrew text Torat Moshe reinforces this goal, because although in practice the rabbis required only monetary compensation, the text is formulated so that the wrestler fears that his own life will be required for a failed life and his own body will be damaged for body damage. In addition, a court decision on an offender, however merciful, cannot affect the decision of heaven - the offender can still be punished by death (accidental immediate death, death before the age of fifty or sixty, etc.) regardless of the decision of the provincial court. Torat Moshe demands the same right for all: “You will have one right for both the guest and the natives. I am the LORD your God.”